V-model tests – When use, Pros, Cons and Criticism

V model is one of the most used software development process. Introduction of V model has proved the implementation of testing right from the requirement phase. V model is also called as verification and validation model.


V model is applicable when:

  • Requirement is well defined and not ambiguous
  • Acceptance criteria are well defined.
  • Project is short to medium in size.
  • Technology and tools used are not dynamic.

Pros and Cons of using V model:



– Development and progress is very organized and systematic– Works well for smaller to medium sized projects.– Testing starts from beginning so ambiguities are identified from the beginning.

– Easy to manage as each phase has well defined objectives and goals.

– Not suitable for bigger and complex projects– Not suitable if the requirements are not consistent.– No working software is produced in the intermediate stage.

– No provision for doing risk analysis so uncertainty and risks are there.

The V-Model has been criticized by Agile advocates and others as an inadequate model of software development for numerous reasons. Including:
  • It is too simple to accurately reflect the software development process, and can lead managers into a false sense of security.
  • Fits the needs of project managers, accountants and lawyers rather than software developers or users. Although it is easily understood by novices
  • If practitioners persist with their naive view of the V-Model they will have great difficulty applying it successfully.
  •   Is inflexible and encourages a rigid and linear view of software development and has no inherent ability to respond to change.
  • Provides only a slight variant on the waterfall model and is therefore subject to the same criticisms as that model.
  • Implicitly promotes writing test scripts in advance rather than exploratory testing.
  • Encourages testers to look for what they expect to find, rather than discover what is truly there.
  • Also encourages a rigid link between the equivalent levels of either leg, rather than encouraging testers to select the most effective and efficient way to plan and execute testing.
  • It lacks coherence and precision.
V-model has the same idea of BDD, you need to share knowledge since the beginning of the project (kick-off), providing greater emphasis on testing, and particularly the importance of early test planning.